Set Option Strict to Default in VB.NET Templates

By Peter A. Bromberg, Ph.D.
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Peter Bromberg

IIn Visual Basic 6 and earlier, we had a lot of "lazy" flexibility with variable types. The VARIANT type would allow us to stick just about anything in it and we even had the option of not declaring variables at all. Lazy typing created a lot of - you guessed it -- lazy programmers. It also created inefficiencies and a much higher probability of errors in code.

VB6 would then make assumptions about what we were trying to do with our variables. In VB.NET we can still do these things. VB.NET carries over the VB 6.0 declaration “Option Explicit”, which requires us to declare all variables. VB.NET also introduces the new declaration “Option Strict”,which forces the strong CLR type system.

If we attempt to add two undeclared variables with Option Strict turned off, the compiler generated IL contains boxing code, moving the value types into the heap by sticking them into a referenced type. Boxing is performed with System.Object, and there is a performance hit because an additional object has to be maintained for each undeclared variable. In addition, there will be a call to the Microsoft.Visualbasic compatibility layer:

IL_0015: call object [Microsoft.VisualBasic]
Microsoft.VisualBasic.CompilerServices.ObjectType::AddObj(object, object)

There are cases when an instance of a value type needs to be treated as an instance of a reference type. For situations like this, a value type instance can be converted into a reference type instance through a process called boxing. When a value type instance is boxed, storage is allocated on the heap and the instance's value is copied into that space. A reference to this storage is placed on the stack. The boxed value is an object, a reference type that contains the contents of the value type instance. A boxed value type instance can also be converted back to its original form, a process called unboxing.

The key to this issue is understanding the difference between value types and reference types, which is a fundamental distinction in the Common type System, and this means having an understanding of how memory is allocated for instances of each type. In managed code, values can have their memory allocated either on the stack or on the heap, both of which are managed by the CLR. Variables allocated on the stack are normally created when a running method creates them. From a memory perspective, the basic difference between value types and reference types is that an instance of a value type has its value allocated on the stack, while an instance of a reference type has only a reference to its actual value allocated on the stack. The value itself is allocated on the heap.

The memory used by stack variables is automatically freed when the method in which they were created returns. However, variables allocated on the heap don't have their memory freed when the method that created them returns. Instead, the memory used by these variables is freed via the garbage collection process, which can (and often does) occur whenever it "feels like it".

It is this second process, involving calling the Microsoft.VisualBasic namespace, creating and boxing the new variables (the ones you didn't declare and type) and finally storing references to these values on the stack and the actual boxed values themselves on the heap is what happens when you don't declare and type variables in VB.NET.

The bottom line is there is a definite performance penalty for undeclared or untyped variables in VB.NET. With Option Explicit On and Option Strict On, we must declare our two variables and type them before attempting our addition. The two variables in the compiler - generated IL are declared on the Stack with no boxing, which is obviously less lines of IL code as well as much more efficient code.

Unfortunately, in bringing out the final release of Visual Studio.NET, Microsoft bowed to the cries of millions of VB programmers and left Option Strict Off by default in all our VB.NET projects! Just about every professional author and programmer will tell you that you should ALWAYS set Option Strict to "On"!

Fortunately, there is a very easy way to do this so that you won't forget. Every VB.NET Project type has a "ProjectType.vbproj" template that sets the basics for that type of project. These are located under the "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET\Vb7\VBWizards" folder, each in a separate subfolder. All you need to do is use the Windows Explorer "Search" on the above folder, searching on "*.vbproj" to bring them all up in the right Explorer pane. Simply load each one in your favorite text editor, and add the highlighted lines in red in the "Settings" section, and re-save the files.

OutputType = "Library"
StartupObject = ""
OptionExplicit= "On"
OptionStrict = "On"


Now all your projects will automatically have "Option Explicit" and "Option Strict" turned on. Trust me, there may be a brief period of pain and inconvenience while you graduate to the level of "non-crybaby" professional, but you will better understand the .NET Framework and your programs will run faster, better and with less errors!

Watch a narrated Flash movie of how to perform the above modifications.


Peter Bromberg is an independent consultant specializing in distributed .NET solutions Inc. in Orlando and a co-developer of the developer website. He can be reached at