Firstly, please make sure that you're only running one setup at one time.
Then please check that the Windows Installer service is set to manual but not disable via the following steps:
1. Click Start menu, click Run, type services.msc in the Open text box, and then click OK.
2. In the Services (Local) list, right-click Windows Installer, and then click Properties.
3. If the Startup type drop-down list is set to a value of Disable, select the Manual option from the Startup type drop-down list, and then click OK.
4. Click the File menu, and then click Exit.
If it's already set right, try to repair Windows Installer:
1. Run regedit (Start menu -> Run -> Regedit)
2. Go to the location
3. Right click on this key and select "Export" to save the backup *.reg file for later use
4. Open an elevated command prompt.
To do this, click Start menu -> All Programs -> Accessories, right-click Command Prompt, and then choose Run as administrator. If you are prompted for an administrator password or for a confirmation, type the password, or click Allow.
5. Type the following command, and then press ENTER:
6. Do not reboot when complete
7. Double click saved *.reg file from working machine and import registry settings into your system.
For more information about System File Checker tool (SFC.exe) usage on Windows 7, please see: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/929833
If no avail, for x64 OS, could you please try the workaround from the following Windows Installer issue?
Additionally, here is a useful KB that could help you to resolve Common "Windows Installer" problems. You could try to do some common methods like enabling Windows Installer Service, reinstalling Windows Installer.
Also, please try the steps in this KB article: http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;315346
If the suggestions above still not working, you might be required a machine to be restored or an in-place upgrade to be performed to recover it.
For one quicker way to repair OS or restore the OS configuration to an earlier point.
Here is a KB about this, please see: http://support.microsoft.com/kb/936212/
Or if you have the original media, you can did a repair of Win7.
Would you please check whether you computer meet the system require of Visual Studio 2010?
Visual Studio 2010 Ultimate System Requirements: http://www.microsoft.com/visualstudio/en-us/products/2010-editions/ultimate
Secondly, would you please try the steps mentioned in this post?
To troubleshoot the Visual Studio installation issues, usually we can collect the installation log files and analyze them. Would you please help to collect the log files for me?You can follow below steps to collect install log files:
· Try to clean your "%temp%" folder (Start Menu >> Run >> Type "%temp%).
· Install Visual Studio 2010 again.
· Collect the logs from "%temp%" folder with the Collect tool.
Collect tool: http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=e0da314f-6216-4a18-bc6b-7d29cf83af20&displaylang=en
The below link may help resolve the issue. It talks about a similar issue.
· I hope you this would help to reslove your problem.